This article is about the treatise by Aristotle. For the theory of literary forms and discourse, see Poetics. For other uses, see Poetics disambiguation. A History of Literary Criticism and Theory: From Plato to the Present. An Art of Character. Logos and Power in Isocrates and Aristotle.
Societe d'etudes classiques Ziva Antika Oxford University Press pp. Oxford University Press , pp. Larousse , June, In Butcher's translation, this passage reads: This text is available online in an older translation, in which the same passage reads: The one tragedy came from the prelude to the dithyramb and the other comedy from the prelude to the phallic songs which still survive as institutions in many cities.
Rhetoric Rhetoric to Alexander Poetics. Generally agreed to be spurious.
Many chapters in Book I of Aristotle's Rhetoric cover the various typical deliberative arguments in Athenian culture. Book II gives advice for all types of speeches. Aristotle's Rhetoric generally concentrates on ethos and pathos , and—as noted by Aristotle—both affect judgment.
Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Aristotle (Greek: – BCE) was a Greek philosopher In stark contrast to the emotional rhetoric and poetry of the sophists was a rhetoric grounded in philosophy and the pursuit of enlightenment. It starts from the premise that audiences are active participants who bring their own background This is a provisional table of contents, and subject to changes .
Specifically, Aristotle refers to the effect of ethos and pathos on an audience since a speaker needs to exhibit these modes of persuasion before that audience. In Chapter 1, Aristotle notes that emotions cause men to change their opinions and judgments.
As such, emotions have specific causes and effects Book 2. A speaker can therefore employ this understanding to stimulate particular emotions from an audience. However, Aristotle states that along with pathos , the speaker must also exhibit ethos , which for Aristotle encompasses phronesis , arete , and eunoia Book 2. Chapters 2—11 explore those emotions useful to a rhetorical speaker. Aristotle provides an account on how to arouse these emotions in an audience so that a speaker might be able to produce the desired action successfully Book 2.
Aristotle arranges the discussion of the emotions in opposing pairs, such as anger and calmness or friendliness and enmity. It is pertinent to understand all the components in order to stimulate a certain emotion within another person. For example, to Aristotle, anger results from the feeling of belittlement Book 2. Those who become angry are in a state of distress due to a foiling of their desires Book 2. The angry direct their emotion towards those who insult the latter or that which the latter values. These insults are the reasoning behind the anger Book 2.
In this way, Aristotle proceeds to define each emotion, assess the state of mind for those experiencing the emotion, determine to whom people direct the emotion, and reveal their reasoning behind the emotion.
Kennedy in On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civic Discourse remarks that ethos predominantly refers to the "moral character" of actions and mind. On page , Kennedy reveals the purpose of chapters 12—17 as a demonstration to the speaker of "how his ethos must attend and adjust to the ethos of varied types of auditor if he is to address them successfully. Yet, in these chapters, Aristotle analyzes the character of different groups of people so that a speaker might adjust his portrayed ethos in order to influence the audience.
First, he describes the young as creatures of desire, easily changeable and swiftly satisfied. The young hate to be belittled because they long for superiority Book 2. According to Aristotle, the old are distrustful, cynical, and small-minded for unlike the young their past is long and their future short Book 2. The old do not act on a basis of desire but rather act for profit Book 2. Those in the prime of life represent the mean to Aristotle, possessing the advantages of both old and young without excess or deficiency Book 2. Although Book II primarily focuses on ethos and pathos, Aristotle discusses paradigm and enthymeme as two common modes of persuasion.
There exist two kinds of paradigm: Maxims , or succinct, clever statements about actions, serve as the conclusion of enthymemes Book 2. In choosing a maxim, one should assess the audience views and employ a fitting maxim Book 2.
In all of these techniques, Aristotle considers popular wisdom and audiences as a central guide. The transition concludes the discussion of pathos, ethos, paradigms, enthymemes, and maxims so that Book III may focus on delivery, style, and arrangement.
However, Book III contains informative material on lexis style which refers to the "way of saying" in Chapters and taxis , which refers to the arrangement of words in Chapters Scholars are turning to Book III once again to develop theories about Greek style and its contemporary relevance. She cites Aristotle to persuade her audience of the characteristics of deliberative rhetoric's influential nature. Rorty argues, "the deliberative rhetorician who wishes to retain his reputation as trustworthy must pay attention to what is, in fact, actually likely to happen.
In interpreting Aristotle's work on use of rhetoric, Bernard Yack discusses the vast need for public discourse and public reasoning. Without such a version of deliberative rhetoric, arguments would unfairly favor the interests of power and neglect the rights of the common people. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Readings from Classical Times to the Present. Coleman, Ruth Golden and J.
The rhetoric of Western thought: From the Mediterranean world to the global setting , 9th ed. Southern Illinois University Press: Gross and Walzer further say that "There is no comparable situation in any other discipline: No other discipline would claim that a single ancient text so usefully informs current deliberations on practice and theory. The Rhetoric of Aristotle. Aristotle, The Art of Rhetoric. The Works of Aristotle, Vol. Roberts and Ingram Bywater. A Theory of Civic Discourse. Essays in Rhetoric, Oratory, Language, and Drama. A Journal of the History of Rhetoric.
International Society for the History of Rhetoric.